明清鼎革后东亚文化共同体内各国的中国观——以安南使人对“薙发易服”的态度为视角 /刘永连 刘家兴(46)
The War for the “Wave of the Future”: Sino-American Ideological Confrontation and U.S. South-East Asia Policies in the 1960s /Zhang Yang(4)
The Struggle for the Control over Posted Oil Prices and the U.S.Oil Policies in the Middle East (1970-1971) /Zheng Gong(18)
The Urban Labor Policy of British Central and Eastern Africa /Li Pengtao(31)
The Views of the East Asian Cultural Community on China after the Dynastic Transition from Ming to Qing: The Attitudes of Annamese Emissaries on “Hair-Cutting”
and “Costume-Changing” /Liu Yonglian and Liu Jiaxing(46)
The “Modernity” Debate and “Overcoming Modernity” in Japan: The Modernism of Masao Maruyama /Tang Yongliang(59)
The Development of French Regulations on Urban Industrial Pollution (1810-1850) /Xiao Xiaodan(73)
Christian European Image of the Ottoman in the 16th Century /Song Baojun(86)
The Madness of Isaac Newton: Multiple Explanations and the Construction of Humanities and Sciences /Zou Xiang(99)
Is the U.S.A. an Empire?—— Debates in American Political Circles and the Academia /Xia Yafeng(114)
John C. Olin's Catholic Reformation Studies /Fu Liang(127)
The Economic-Social Crisis Theory of Ernest Labrousse /Zhou Xiaolan(141)
SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES
Zhang Yang, The War for the “Wave of the Future”: Sino-American Ideological Confrontation and U.S. South-East Asia Policies in the 1960s
Since the birth of the People's Republic of China, U.S. policy makers have been constantly assessing and analyzing the power and influence of China, weighing China' impact on the formulation of U.S. Asia policy. In the 1960s, concerning about the possible attraction of a successful “China model” to other Asian nations, U.S. policy makers started to emphasize China's importance in giving rise to the “trend of the future”. This concern with the America's authority and status in Asia partly contributed to the escalation of the Vietnam War. A review of the “trend of the future” discourse would be helpful to reassess the cause and effect of U.S. South-East Asia policies during that period. How the United States understood China in relation to this is still a determinant of America's China policy.
Zheng Gong, The Struggle for the Control over Posted Oil Prices and the U.S.Oil Policies in the Middle East (1970-1971)
In December 1970, OPEC started a struggle against major oil companies and their countries (mainly the U.S.) so as to raise and control oil prices. At the beginning, the U.S. government supported oil companies by loosening restrictions of the Antitrust Law. However, as the oil in the Middle East was indispensable to the U.S. and other Western powers, and due to the increase of anti-American sentiments in the Middle East, the U.S. government changed its position and began to persuade oil companies to make compromises. OPEC won the struggle and took the control over oil prices, and as a result, oil prices increased drastically. This event marked the decline of America's hegemony in the oil market and the beginning of the first oil crisis.
Li Pengtao, The Urban Labor Policy of British Central and Eastern Africa
Since the establishment of the British colonial rule in Central and Eastern Africa, British colonial administrators regarded tribe as a basic unit of the African society. According to their imagination, African people could not be accustomed to modern economic and urban life, and Africans living in urban areas were regarded as the “detribalized” people. However, with the development of colonial economy and the upheaval of strikes since the 1930s, the colonial authorities were forced to recognize the existence of African urban groups and took the policy of labor stabilization. The transformation of labor policies from “detribalization” to labor stabilization reflected a shift in British colonizers' perceptions of the African society and the decline of the colonial power, which formed the background in the decolonization movements in the 1950s and the 1960s.
Liu Yonglian and Liu Jiaxing, The Views of the East Asian Cultural Community on China after the Dynastic Transition from Ming to Qing：The Attitudes of Annamese Emissaries on “Hair-Cutting” and “Costume-Changing”
The late Qianlong's reign paralleled the political transition from the later Lê to Tay So'n dynasty in Annam. The obvious difference in attitudes of Annamese emissaries from these two dynasties arose from a complex interaction among national, cultural, psychological, political and international considerations, reflecting Annam's attitudes to and views on the Qing dynasty. Meanwhile, other East Asian countries' views on China also reflected their own perspectives and deliberations. Although Korea, Japan and Annam all disliked the Qing, their actions were varied separately and differently. This phenomenon was driven by the specific circumstances of international relations in East Asia. It adumbrated the gradual alienation of other East Asian countries from China and the different paths of development which these countries followed in later times.
Tang Yongliang, The “Modernity” Debate and “Overcoming Modernity” in Japan: The Modernism of Masao Maruyama
As a renowned post-WWII Japanese thinker, Masao Maruyama's analysis concerning Japan was not based on the archetype of Western modernity. Instead, he cherished his own dialectic view. He acknowledged the progressiveness of Western modernity, but criticized its “degeneration” since the middle 19th century, and therefore advocated a return to the “origin” of modernity. Based on this view, he harshly denounced the trend of “overcoming modernity”, which had prevailed during WWII and then revived afterwards. During WWII, his criticism had a non-academic end, but his means was purely academic. He targeted at the origin of “overcoming modernity”, i.e., the “diagnosis” of the time, and revealed that pre-modern Japan was not “uninfected” by modernity, as a primitive modern identity had already appeared. After WWII, his criticism was centered on the social-structural pathogens hampering the full realization of Japanese modern identity. In his view, a real Japanese modern identity could not form unless improvements in free choices among different values made by establishing a civil society and increasing inter-cultural contacts.
Xiao Xiaodan, The Development of French Regulations on Urban Industrial Pollution (1810-1850)
With the rapid growth of chemical industry and rampant increase of urban industrial pollution, France issued an Imperial Decree on 15 October 1810 to classify industrial installations and to establish a regulation system in accordance. Aiming at a steady development of industry and the reconciliation of conflicts among facility and land proprietors, the decree was far from effective due to the conciliatory attitude of provincial governments and advisory agencies. Nevertheless, the regulation and compensation system which the decree set up was influential in the European continent. The gradual correction and completion of the classification system also reflected the enhancement of environmental awareness of citizens.
Song Baojun, Christian European Image of the Ottoman in the 16th Century
The Ottoman Empire was deemed the “Sick Man of Europe” since the 19th century. However, in the early modern era, especially the 16th century, when the expansion of the Ottoman Empire reached its peak, Christian European images of the Ottoman were different and various: it was derogatorily described as the “Terror of the World”, the “Scourge of God”, and the “Enemy of Christendom”; meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire was also praised as powerful, orderly, and efficient. Some even considered it as a usable ally in political, commercial and religious conflicts in the Christian world. These images were derived from the profound hostility toward the Islamic world, the ascendency of the Ottoman power, the internal conflicts among Christian powers, and the development of modern politics. To some extent, the images of the Ottoman Empire were self-projections reflecting Christian Europe's comparative self-orientation and construction with the Ottoman Empire in mind.
Zou Xiang, The Madness of Isaac Newton: Multiple Explanations and the Construction of Humanities and Sciences
Isaac Newton, being fruitful in many theoretical fields including science, philosophy, theology, and economics, was one of the greatest minds since the modern era. There was a rumor of Newton being mad, however, its effect was rather minimal. Neither study nor biography of Newton in the 18th century mentioned that he had been plagued by any mental problem. But in the 19th century, with the emergence of relevant records, his mentality became a focus. Especially in the early 20th century, the auction of his manuscripts revealed many documents formerly unbeknownst to researchers. His madness became an intricate topic and his personality has been depicted and redepicted. No longer a paragon of wisdom and virtue, he is now interpreted as a common person with temper and flaws in character. The madness of Newton provides a lens for people to observe his different images in different times, through which the humanities and sciences' construction of madness is revealed. It also raises the question about the boundary of historical objectivity.
Xia Yafeng, Is the U.S.A. an Empire? —— Debates in American Political Circles and the Academia
Since the “9/11 incident”, and especially after the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, the debate on whether America was an empire reemerged among American politicians and academics. Based on their focuses, the participants could be divided into three groups: the first group discusses the definition of the “American empire”, the second examines its basis, and the third calculates the costs and benefits of the empire. America is indeed a tremendous “empire” in a military and economic sense, but the current America is drastically different from the colonial empires in the 19th and 20th centuries in terms of economy, culture and ideology. Hence, a study of the “American empire” should not only emphasize on its hard and soft power, but also introduce a theoretical framework that encompasses both microscopic data and discussions of the specific influence of the “American empire” under different conditions through case and comparative studies.
Fu Liang, John C. Olin's Catholic Reformation Studies
American historian, John C. Olin, is an important figure who uses the “Jedinian paradigm” to promote the research of the 16th-century Catholic reformation. In contrast to the traditional view which considers the 16th-century Catholic Church the embodiment of Anti-Protestantism, he acknowledges and examines the long-term reformatory forces within the Church. He argues that the Catholic reformation was a constructive movement since the late Middle Ages. In his decades of academic career, Olin compiled historical records and taught relevant courses, endeavoring to discover the ignored history of the Catholic Church and clarify the distorted part of the history. However, his framework of Catholic reformation was not immaculate. It overlooked the network of multiple denominations within the Christian community, which experienced nuanced developments in front of challenges. These developments could possibly be scrutinized from a perspective of “the revival of Catholic Church in the early modern global history”.
Zhou Xiaolan, The Economic-Social Crisis Theory of Ernest Labrousse
Ernest Labrousse, the world-renowned French social-economic historian in the mid-20th century, proposed a characteristic economic-social crisis theory which incorporates price, wage, and capital data into historical research. Making use of political-economic and sociological results from the 18th to 20th centuries, he explained the French Revolution in a framework of economic crisis, resulting in great academic repercussion among historians. After WWII, supported by the Annales School which was enthusiastic about combining historical research with other social sciences, he entered the historical circle and became a groundbreaker of a new field of historical research.