“丝绸之路”与13—14世纪大不里士的兴起 /车效梅 郑敏 (30)
16世纪发生在西班牙的一场“印第安斯人”诉讼案——近代早期漂泊到伊比利亚半岛的中国人 /龚缨晏 胡刚(93)
Later British Reflections on the French Revolution /Harry T. Dickinson(4)
The Silk Road and the Rise of the City Tabriz in the 13th and 14th Centuries /Che Xiaomei and Zheng Min(30)
The Acceptance and Adaption of Imperial Decrees of the Ming and Qing Dynasties by Moral Education in Modern Japan /Yin Xiaoxing(45)
The Propaganda toward the American Prisoners of War during the American War of Independence and Its Significance /Zhang Muzhi(61)
The Building of American Image by American Propaganda toward China during the Pacific War /Wang Ruiheng(79)
Early Migration of the Chinese to Europe: A Litigation in 16th-Century Spain /Gong Yingyan and Hu Gang(93)
Voltaire and the Enlightenment in the Police’s Journal /Shi Fang(105)
Chinese Knowledge of the Greco-Roman World in Myth of Xi Wangmu during the Period from the Han to Tang Dynasties /Zhang Xushan(121)
The Real and Imagined Ta-chin: Ancient Chinese Perception of the Roman Empire /Pang Naiming(141)
SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES
Harry T. Dickinson, Later British Reflections on the French Revolution
The French Revolution, which began in 1789, had a profound effect on Britain, dividing the British elite and even ordinary people into those excited by and sympathetic to French principles and those opposed to and alarmed by these principles. The most intellectually profound and politically influential conservative critique of French principles was Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France, written as early as 1790. Many scholars have examined British views of the French Revolution from its origins to the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. This article breaks new ground by attempting an overview of British reflections on the French Revolution from 1815 to 2015. It explores three aspects of these later reflections: the major changes in the historiography of the Revolution produced by British scholars from 1815 to the present; the cultural responses to the Revolution produced by British poets, novelists, playwrights and film makers; and the impact on British political opinions of the Revolution forged by political parties and organizations on the left, right and center of politics.
Che Xiaomei and Zheng Min, The Silk Road and the Rise of the City Tabriz in the 13th and 14th Centuries
Tabriz was an important city along the Silk Road in the 13th and 14th centuries and played a significant role in the civilization communication between Asia and Europe. After Tabriz was chose as the new capital of Ilkhanate, it developed rapidly because of the interaction between the stable domestic situation and the unimpeded Silk Road. Accordingly, the scale of Tabriz expanded rapidly and it became the center of the regional trade network. The political system and culture of Ilkhanate, the character of which was inclusive and equitable, not only provided a historical opportunity for the development of Tabriz, but made the city a place where the Asian and European civilizations exchanged mutually. In this city, the material exchanged frequently and the historical prospects with the integration of the East and the West appeared comprehensively in religion, language, painting and technology This made Tabriz have crucial influence in the history of cultural communication between Asia and Europe.
Yin Xiaoxing, The Acceptance and Adaption of Imperial Decrees of the Ming and Qing Dynasties by Moral Education in Modern Japan
Since the early modern time, Japan has actively absorbed the related theories of moral education from China. During this process, the acceptance and reestablishment of Imperial decrees of the Ming and Qing dynasties were closely related to the moral education in early modern Japan. Taking the Meiji Restoration as the dividing line, dramatic changings happened in the interpretation and adoption by Japan regarding the Imperial decrees of the Ming and Qing dynasties from the early modern period to the modern time. The establishment of the modern education system in Japan was a historical process in which the unity of the ideas of the people and the state penetrated the education in schools. In such process, Imperial decrees of the Ming and Qing dynasties provided the material concerning the content and form for the promulgation of Imperial Rescript on Education by the Mikado and the primary moral education of Japan. Nevertheless, the interpretation on Imperial decrees of the Ming and Qing dynasties during the Meiji period caused the fragmentation of the morality establishment in early modern Japan and East Asia.
Zhang Muzhi, The Propaganda toward the American Prisoners of War during the American War of Independence and Its Significance
During the American War of Independence, a comprehensive propaganda system concerning the wartime experience of the American prisoners of war was formed in America including the paper, the investigation report regarding the prisoners of war, the narrative of the prisoners of war, and the wartime diaries. By virtue of the humanity, religion, right, etc., the North American revolutionists vividly depicted the various brutal behaviors of the British army treating the American prisoners of war and built a negative image of Britain as “the other with brutality and barbarism”. On the other hand, they advocated the American value of republicanism and nation’s character, the cores of which were mercy and loyalty. The propaganda regarding the prisoners of war encouraged the American people to support the revolution, deepened their identification with the virtue of republicanism and the spirit of freedom, prompted their awareness of identity realizing from the dependence on Britain to the independence. This became a significant strength prompting the American people to initially build their sense of national identity, and had its unique historical meaning in the context of the American War of Independence.
Wang Ruiheng, The Building of American Image by American Propaganda toward China during the Pacific War
The external propaganda is a crucial method for a country in building its national image abroad and promoting its foreign policy. During the Pacific War, the Office of War Information which was the formal propaganda agency of the U.S. launched the intensive propaganda programs in China. This aimed at boosting the morale of Chinese people, promoting the Sino-American friendship, and exporting the American values and the idea of the “international community”. Through the various media, including newspaper, magazine, picture show, movie and broadcast, the U.S. described itself as the model of the free democracy, the international fighter and the loyal ally of Chinese people, while it deliberately hided its internal racial issue. To satisfy the requirements of propaganda and facilitate the U.S. diplomacy toward China, the Office of War Information overly embellished the national image of the U.S. in its propaganda and exaggerated the effects of the American aid. Nevertheless, in some extent, its propaganda advanced the Chinese cognition about the U.S. and improved the cooperation between the U.S. and China during the wartime.
Gong Yingyan and Hu Gang, Early Migration of the Chinese to Europe: A Litigation in 16th-Century Spain
In 1572, a Chinese with a Spanish name, Diego Indio, filed a lawsuit against a slave owner, Morales. Diego Indio claimed that he was an Indio in the Spanish overseas territory and arrived in Spain via Americas travelling from the west to the east. Unfortunately, he was sold as a slave by Morales after his arrival. Accordingly, he appealed to the court for his freedom based on the related law. On the contrary, Morales asserted that Diego Indio was not eligible for freedom because he was from Portuguese colonies and arrived in Spain via Africa travelling from the east to the west. Lasted for three years, this lawsuit was sentenced by the court and Diego won the case. However, according to other historical records, the truth of Diego’s migration from China to Spain may not be as simple as the lawsuit indicated. This case clearly reflects the painful experience of the Chinese drifting from the east to the west in the process of early modern globalization. On the other hand, it demonstrates that the Chinese showed their excellent qualities of decent living, hardworking, and loving of their motherland since the first day they landed on Western Europe. These constitute the common genes of overseas Chinese around the world. The oversea Chinese, having endured many tribulations, still lead a vibrant and energetic life.
Shi Fang, Voltaire and the Enlightenment in the Police’s Journal
At the height of the Enlightenment in France, Voltaire was the main object of surveillance by Joseph d’Hémery, a police officer who was in charge of the inspection on the book trade. In d’Hémery’s journal, Voltaire was frequently mentioned. The anecdotes appearing in the journal, which were provided by Fréron, editor-in-chief of the anti-philosophique mouthpiece L’Année littéraire, depicted Voltaire as impudent, dishonorable, and conceited. On the contrary, d’Hémery mainly appreciated and respected Voltaire’s talent with open-minded and moderate attitude, although he regarded Voltaire as “mauvais sujet”. The suspicious books recorded in his journal further revealed that d’Hémery observed almost all the philosophes, their works and the related conflicts of their ideas, but did not recognize the Enlightenment. It was the anti-philosophes, such as Fréron, who considered the philosophes a monolithic group and fiercely debated with the “Enlightenment”, a movement of ideas which was conceived by themselves. The difference between d’Hémery and the anti-philosophes indicates the complicated relationship among the Enlightenment, the Counter-Enlightenment and the contemporary authorities.
Zhang Xushan, Chinese Knowledge of the Greco-Roman World in Myth of Xi Wangmu during the Period from the Han to Tang Dynasties
The myth of Xi Wangmu (Queen mother of the West) contained the religious belief and the geographical information of the ancient Chinese. Interweaving with the belief of Xi Wangmu, the information referring to the world outside ancient China substantially reflected the geographical ideas held by ancient Chinese in their world. They believed that the fabulous kingdom of Xi Wangmu was a far-away western state, represented the western extremity of ecumene (i.e. the inhabited world). When the great explorer, Zhang Qian, reached Central Asia in 128 BC on his mission and learned some hearsay news about the far-western country of Tiao-zhi, he related Xi Wangmu to that information and assumed that the mythological kingdom located in Tiao-zhi. However, other Chinese explorers in later time supposed the mythological kingdom located in a new country, Ta-chin, when they learned that Ta-chin was located to the far west of Tiao-zhi. Accordingly, the location of Xi Wangmu was fixed westwards further. In the Tang Dynasty, Xi Wangmu lost its geographical vitality in Chinese minds, although the Nestorian Christians travelling to China adopted the old mythological sources to describe their native land (Syria) for the purpose of mission. The myth of Xi Wangmu was originated from East China and was spread westwards due to the enlargement of Chinese geographical horizon, instead of simply borrowing the existing myth from the outside world.
Pang Naiming, The Real and Imagined Ta-chin: Ancient Chinese Perception of the Roman Empire
The direct representation of Ta-chin’s image in ancient Chinese mind was formed firstly in the Han dynasty and reached to its peak during the Wei and Jin dynasties. Compared with the actual situation of the Roman Empire, the image of Ta-chin built by Chinese on the basis of knowledge obtained from the second-hand material and other means was a western empire of might and power, an empire which was magnificent and rich, peaceful and tranquil, the people of which looked like Chinese. This empire was nearly a fairyland with fragrance, it was a representation of the illusions which ancient Chinese attached to the whole western world. In terms of the mechanism of image formation, the formation and evolution of the image of Ta-chin were not only constrained by the external conceptions in China since the pre-Qin period, but also were affected by the history and reality of the Roman Empire, the cultural exchanges and interaction between China and the West, and the countries along the Silk Road which conveyed the information regarding the Roman Empire intermediately. As the mirror image of the ‘other’ in ancient Chinese culture, the image of Ta-chin showed a picture of the illusions of Roman civilization created by ancient Chinese, from which we can catch a glimpse of the external conceptions and the social spirits of the Han and Jin dynasties.
Tang Yongliang, The “Modernity” Debate and “Overcoming Modernity” in Japan: The Modernism of Masao Maruyama
As a renowned post-WWII Japanese thinker, Masao Maruyama's analysis concerning Japan was not based on the archetype of Western modernity. Instead, he cherished his own dialectic view. He acknowledged the progressiveness of Western modernity, but criticized its “degeneration” since the middle 19th century, and therefore advocated a return to the “origin” of modernity. Based on this view, he harshly denounced the trend of “overcoming modernity”, which had prevailed during WWII and then revived afterwards. During WWII, his criticism had a non-academic end, but his means was purely academic. He targeted at the origin of “overcoming modernity”, i.e., the “diagnosis” of the time, and revealed that pre-modern Japan was not “uninfected” by modernity, as a primitive modern identity had already appeared. After WWII, his criticism was centered on the social-structural pathogens hampering the full realization of Japanese modern identity. In his view, a real Japanese modern identity could not form unless improvements in free choices among different values made by establishing a civil society and increasing inter-cultural contacts.
Xiao Xiaodan, The Development of French Regulations on Urban Industrial Pollution (1810-1850)
With the rapid growth of chemical industry and rampant increase of urban industrial pollution, France issued an Imperial Decree on 15 October 1810 to classify industrial installations and to establish a regulation system in accordance. Aiming at a steady development of industry and the reconciliation of conflicts among facility and land proprietors, the decree was far from effective due to the conciliatory attitude of provincial governments and advisory agencies. Nevertheless, the regulation and compensation system which the decree set up was influential in the European continent. The gradual correction and completion of the classification system also reflected the enhancement of environmental awareness of citizens.
Song Baojun, Christian European Image of the Ottoman in the 16th Century
The Ottoman Empire was deemed the “Sick Man of Europe” since the 19th century. However, in the early modern era, especially the 16th century, when the expansion of the Ottoman Empire reached its peak, Christian European images of the Ottoman were different and various: it was derogatorily described as the “Terror of the World”, the “Scourge of God”, and the “Enemy of Christendom”; meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire was also praised as powerful, orderly, and efficient. Some even considered it as a usable ally in political, commercial and religious conflicts in the Christian world. These images were derived from the profound hostility toward the Islamic world, the ascendency of the Ottoman power, the internal conflicts among Christian powers, and the development of modern politics. To some extent, the images of the Ottoman Empire were self-projections reflecting Christian Europe's comparative self-orientation and construction with the Ottoman Empire in mind.
Zou Xiang, The Madness of Isaac Newton: Multiple Explanations and the Construction of Humanities and Sciences
Isaac Newton, being fruitful in many theoretical fields including science, philosophy, theology, and economics, was one of the greatest minds since the modern era. There was a rumor of Newton being mad, however, its effect was rather minimal. Neither study nor biography of Newton in the 18th century mentioned that he had been plagued by any mental problem. But in the 19th century, with the emergence of relevant records, his mentality became a focus. Especially in the early 20th century, the auction of his manuscripts revealed many documents formerly unbeknownst to researchers. His madness became an intricate topic and his personality has been depicted and redepicted. No longer a paragon of wisdom and virtue, he is now interpreted as a common person with temper and flaws in character. The madness of Newton provides a lens for people to observe his different images in different times, through which the humanities and sciences' construction of madness is revealed. It also raises the question about the boundary of historical objectivity.
Xia Yafeng, Is the U.S.A. an Empire? —— Debates in American Political Circles and the Academia
Since the “9/11 incident”, and especially after the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, the debate on whether America was an empire reemerged among American politicians and academics. Based on their focuses, the participants could be divided into three groups: the first group discusses the definition of the “American empire”, the second examines its basis, and the third calculates the costs and benefits of the empire. America is indeed a tremendous “empire” in a military and economic sense, but the current America is drastically different from the colonial empires in the 19th and 20th centuries in terms of economy, culture and ideology. Hence, a study of the “American empire” should not only emphasize on its hard and soft power, but also introduce a theoretical framework that encompasses both microscopic data and discussions of the specific influence of the “American empire” under different conditions through case and comparative studies.
Fu Liang, John C. Olin's Catholic Reformation Studies
American historian, John C. Olin, is an important figure who uses the “Jedinian paradigm” to promote the research of the 16th-century Catholic reformation. In contrast to the traditional view which considers the 16th-century Catholic Church the embodiment of Anti-Protestantism, he acknowledges and examines the long-term reformatory forces within the Church. He argues that the Catholic reformation was a constructive movement since the late Middle Ages. In his decades of academic career, Olin compiled historical records and taught relevant courses, endeavoring to discover the ignored history of the Catholic Church and clarify the distorted part of the history. However, his framework of Catholic reformation was not immaculate. It overlooked the network of multiple denominations within the Christian community, which experienced nuanced developments in front of challenges. These developments could possibly be scrutinized from a perspective of “the revival of Catholic Church in the early modern global history”.
Zhou Xiaolan, The Economic-Social Crisis Theory of Ernest Labrousse
Ernest Labrousse, the world-renowned French social-economic historian in the mid-20th century, proposed a characteristic economic-social crisis theory which incorporates price, wage, and capital data into historical research. Making use of political-economic and sociological results from the 18th to 20th centuries, he explained the French Revolution in a framework of economic crisis, resulting in great academic repercussion among historians. After WWII, supported by the Annales School which was enthusiastic about combining historical research with other social sciences, he entered the historical circle and became a groundbreaker of a new field of historical research.