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威廉•乔治•霍斯金斯(William George Hoskins)

  威廉•乔治•霍斯金斯(William George Hoskins,1908-1992)是20世纪英国著名的地方史学家,被誉为英国“现代地方史之父”。

  生平简介

  威廉•乔治•霍斯金斯1908年出生于英国德文郡埃克塞特城,在英国西南大学学院接受高等教育,1929年获得硕士学位,1938年获得博士学位,1931—1941年执教于莱斯特大学学院,二战期间为伦敦贸易委员会(the Board of Trade in London)工作四年,1946年重回莱斯特大学学院执教,1951年转任牛津大学直到1965年受聘重回莱斯特大学任英国史哈顿教授(Hatton Professor of English History,莱斯特大学学院1957年升格为莱斯特大学),1968年从莱斯特大学退休。因其卓越的学术贡献,1969年当选为英国国家学术院院士,1971年获得大英帝国司令勋章(CBE),1973年当选为英国皇家建筑师学会荣誉会员,1976年获得英国皇家地理学会默奇森奖章(the Murchison Award)等。1992年逝世于德文郡的卡伦普顿(Cullompton),享年83岁。

  霍斯金斯一生涉猎地方史、农业史以及城市史等多个学术领域,可谓著作等身。其主要著作有:《埃克塞特的工业、贸易与居民,1688—1800》(1935)、《中部英格兰》(1949)、《莱斯特郡史论集》(1950)、《英国景观的形成》(1955)、《米德兰农民》(1957)、《英国地方史》(1959)、《乡间英国:社会和经济史论集》(1963)、《掠夺的时代:亨利八世时代的英格兰》(1976)等。

  霍斯金斯的地方史研究

  作为英国当代最卓越的地方史家,霍斯金斯既有对地方史理论上的阐述,也有对地方史的典型个案研究,实现了地方史理论与实践的完美结合。

  首先,秉持眼光向下的地方史研究。霍斯金斯主张现代地方史家的主题不应是庄园领主、贵族世系、地产名录,而应是城镇和乡村共同体的起源与发展。由此,霍斯金斯便为地方史研究框定了研究对象——地方共同体。这就决定了其研究视野的下移,更加注重底层普通民众在历史中的角色与作用。其著作中,所描述的对象:城镇、乡村、农业与普通民众,俯拾皆是;范围大到一郡、一城,小至一村、一族。

  其次,注重整体的地方史研究。尽管霍斯金斯的研究聚焦于地方共同体,但并没有忽视国家史(National History)应有的地位与作用,而是尤为注重地方史与国家史的关联,主张地方史应对整体史作出贡献。在《埃克塞特的工业、贸易与居民,1688—1800》一书中,霍斯金斯将居民、农业、工业和贸易置入其地理和文化背景之中,从而达到了地方史与通史相得益彰的效果。《米德兰农民》更是对一个村庄的整体研究,该书探讨了莱斯特郡威格斯顿马格纳村(Wigston Magna)从9世纪到19世纪末的经济和社会史。而霍斯金斯追求的又不只是对该乡村本身的研究,其更冀望通过该个案研究为英国经济和社会史作出贡献。

  第三,注重拓宽研究领域、倡导跨学科的地方史研究。作为一个地方史的革新者,霍斯金斯注重不断拓宽地方史的研究领域。比如,在《英国地方史》中,地形、景观、建筑、职业、物价、工资、经济增长与变迁、社会结构、健康、疾病与人口、家庭、学校等都是他地方史的研究对象。在《英国景观的形成》中,霍斯金斯不仅探讨了景观的历史演进,同时也描绘了这门新的跨学科领域的轮廓。霍斯金斯认为,一位地方史学家必须学会提出社会学的问题,一位地方史家应该兼具地理学家、地质学家、气候学家、植物学家、医者、建筑者和历史学家的知识与视野。因而,《英国景观的形成》一书的出版,标志着历史学家对地理学家、生态学家和人类学家的研究领地发起了第一次实质性的和强有力的进军,甚至1955年应作为跨学科的英国环境史的开始了。

  霍斯金斯与英国地方史学科的建立

  霍斯金斯通过自己的研究论著在英国学界树起了地方史学科的大旗。他为地方史研究框定了研究对象——地方共同体,还通过自己的论述阐明了地方史研究的范式——眼光向下,注重整体,拓宽领域,实践跨学科。与此同时,霍斯金斯还为英国地方史研究提供了方法论。这集中体现在其对地方史史料的论述上。一方面,霍斯金斯认为,地方史研究应扩大史料来源,注意史料的多元化,“各种类型的众多证据都可以成为地方史家的史料。另外,他还主张地方史学家要开展田野调查工作,走进历史现场、挖掘与使用视觉材料(visual evidence),而视觉材料是诸多地方史家所完全忽视的重要史料。可以说,霍斯金斯通过自己的论著为英国地方史树立了研究典范与发展规范。

  此外,霍斯金斯还特别注重地方史的推介。为了推动英国学界对地方史的认识与理解,早在20世纪30年代,他就加入了莱斯特郡考古与历史协会(the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society),还一度担任该协会副主席一职。他不仅在该协会会刊上发表多篇地方史文章,而且还在该协会的相关会议上作有关地方史的学术报告。1969年,霍斯金斯创立了“德文郡史协会”(Devon History Society),并担任首任主席。另外,霍斯金斯还利用现代媒体向英国公众推介英国地方史。早在1954年,他就通过广播为英国公众带来了题为“英国乡村解析”(The Anatomy of the English Countryside)的5次谈话。他还曾先后两次与英国广播公司(BBC)合作,拍摄系列纪录片 “英国景观的形成”(The Making of the English Landscape,1972)和“英格兰景观”(The Landscape of England,1976)。显然,这两部纪录片均是以《英国景观的形成》一书的专业研究为基础,将地方史的学术研究成果用大众喜闻乐见的形式呈现出来。

  再有,霍斯金斯还尤为注重地方史的学科机构建设。他牵头于1948年在莱斯特大学建立了英国第一个地方史系(后发展为莱斯特大学英国地方史中心),这正是“莱斯特学派”能够建立的机构基础,该机构在几代学人的建设之下,如今已经成为英国地方史研究的中心机构。1966年,该机构正式招收英国地方史研究生,培养地方史专业人才,这也是英国第一次开始招收地方史研究生。另外,还不断接纳访问学者前往该机构进行访学、研究。在霍斯金斯及其同仁的不断努力之下,终于将地方史从一门古物学家所消遣的学问提升为一个大家认可的、学术的历史学分支。霍斯金斯无疑是推动地方史学科发展的头等功臣。

  William George Hoskins CBE FBA (22 May 1908 – 11 January 1992)

  William George Hoskins was a British local historian who founded the first university department of English Local History. His great contribution to the study of history was in the field of landscape history. Hoskins demonstrated the profound impact of human activity on the evolution of the English landscape in a pioneering book: The Making of the English Landscape. His work has had lasting influence in the fields of local and landscape history and historical and environmental conservation.

  Life

  William George Hoskins was born at 26–28 St David's Hill, Exeter, Devon on 22 May 1908: his father was a baker. He won a scholarship to Hele's School in 1918, and attended the University College of South West England (later the University of Exeter) where he gained BSc and MSc degrees in economics by the age of 21.[1] Both his M.Sc. degree awarded in 1929 and his PhD in 1938 were concerned with the history of Devon.

  The remainder of his life was devoted to university teaching and the authorship of historical works. He died on 11 January 1992 in Cullompton.

  Academic career

  Hoskins was appointed Lecturer in Commerce at University College, Leicester in 1931. He found the trade statistics to be dull lecture material but he enjoyed the evenings that he spent teaching archaeology and local history at Vaughan College. His academic researches covered historical demography, urban history, agrarian history, the evolution of vernacular architecture, landscape history and local history. After the award of his doctorate Hoskins was appointed Reader in English Local History at University College, Leicester (1938).

  In 1948, a group of local history enthusiasts including Hoskins formed a "Leicestershire Victoria County History Committee". The University of London agreed to publish the second and subsequent volumes of the Victoria County History (VCH) for Leicestershire (the first having been published in 1907) if the Committee prepared the material. The Committee appointed Hoskins as its honorary local editor. He planned the contents of the second and third volumes of the VCH, and edited much of the material submitted. He also edited the articles that formed the history of the City of Leicester. In 1949 Richard McKinley was appointed full-time local Assistant Editor and succeeded Hoskins in 1952. During 1951 Hoskins had shared the honorary local editor position with C. H. Thompson, then Leicestershire County Council archivist.

  In 1952, Hoskins resigned from his posts at University College, Leicester, and on the Leicestershire Victoria County History Committee Leicester to become Reader in Economic History in the University of Oxford.

  Hoskins was one of the founders of the Exeter Group in 1960 (later to become the Exeter Civic Society). He was president of the Dartmoor Preservation Association from 1962 until 1976.

  He became the first professor of local history at the University of Leicester (as University College, Leicester had become) in 1965 when he was appointed Hatton Professor of English History (he retired in 1968). Hoskins wrote and presented a BBC television series The Landscape of England in 1976. Derived from The Making of the English Landscape, the series attracted considerable attention from members of the environmental movement, who cited it to support their arguments for conservation.

  Honours and memorials

  Hoskins was awarded the Fellowship of the British Academy in 1969 and was made a CBE some time before 1974.

  The University of Exeter acknowledged his links with the city by conferring an honorary Doctorate of Letters upon him in 1974.

  As founder of the Department of English Local History (now the Centre for English Local History) at the University of Leicester, his achievements are commemorated by the Friends of the Centre for English Local History each year in the annual W.G. Hoskins lecture.

  In 2004 the Devon History Society erected a blue plaque on his birthplace in Exeter with the inscription: "W. G. HOSKINS CBE FBA DLitt 1908–1992 HISTORIAN OF DEVON, EXETER AND THE ENGLISH LANDSCAPE BORN HERE 'HIC AMOR, HAEC PATRIA EST'".[3] He is also commemorated in the annual local history lecture at Leicester and another at St Anne's College, Oxford.

  Works

  Hoskins, W. G. The Face of Britain. Midland England: A Survey of the Country Between the Midlands and the Trent (London & New York: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1949)

  Hoskins, W. G. East Midlands and the Peak (London: Festival of Britain Office/Collins, 1951) ASIN B0000CHW4S

  Hoskins, W. G. Chilterns to Black Country (London: Festival of Britain Office/Collins, 1951) ASIN B0000CHW4Q

  Hoskins, W. G. and Finberg, H. P. R. Devonshire Studies (London: Jonathan Cape, 1952)

  Hoskins, W. G. A New Survey of England: Devon, Collins, London, February 1954. Reprinted July 1954, April 1959.

  Hoskins, W. G. The Making of the English Landscape (Leicester, 1955) ISBN 0-340-77020-1

  Hoskins, W. G. Leicestershire: an illustrated essay on the history of the landscape. (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1957)

  Hoskins, W. G. The Midland Peasant: The economic and social history of a Leicestershire village (1957) ASIN B0000CMN5O

  Hoskins, W. G. Local History in England (Harlow: Longman, 1959; 2nd edition 1972; 3rd edition 1984) ISBN 0-582-48286-0

  Hoskins, W. G. Devon and its People, (Exeter: A. Wheaton, 1959) ISBN 0-7153-4865-5

  Hoskins, W. G. Two Thousand Years in Exeter, (Exeter: James Townsend, 1960) ISBN 1-86077-303-6

  Hoskins, W. G. 'Foreword' in West, John. Village Records (London: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1962) ISBN 0-85033-444-6

  Hoskins, W. G. and Stamp, L. Dudley The Common Lands of England and Wales (London: Collins, 1963) ASIN B0000CLPBG

  Hoskins, W. G. English Local History: the Past and the Future, An inaugural lecture (Leicester, 1966)

  Hoskins, W. G. Old Devon (London: David & Charles, 1966) ISBN 0-7153-4049-2

  Hoskins, W. G. Fieldwork in Local History (London: Faber & Faber, 1967) ISBN 0-571-18051-5

  Hoskins, W. G. (ed.) History from the Farm (London: Faber & Faber, 1970) ISBN 0-571-09437-6

  Hoskins, W. G. Exeter Militia List 1803 (Chichester: Phillimore, 1972)

  Hoskins, W. G. The Age of Plunder: The England of Henry VIII 1500–1547 (London, 1976) ISBN 0-582-48544-4

  Hoskins, W. G. English Landscapes (London: BBC, 1979) ISBN 0-563-17399-8

  Hoskins, W. G. Devon (Tiverton: Devon, 1992) ISBN 1-86077-204-8

  Hoskins, W. G. Trade and People in Exeter 1688–1800