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当前位置: 首页 > 研究生教育 > 硕士论文摘要 > 孙杉: 叙利亚阿拉伯复兴党军事委员会研究
 

孙杉: 叙利亚阿拉伯复兴党军事委员会研究

  摘   要

  叙利亚阿拉伯复兴党军事委员会成立于埃及和叙利亚合并时期的1959年,解散于阿萨德时期的1970年。它原是一些驻埃及的叙利亚复兴党军官自发组织的军人政治团体,后演变成叙利亚事实上的最高决策机构。军事委员会是叙利亚军人势力和复兴党相互渗透和结合的产物,也深受叙利亚阶层冲突、地域差异和族群对立等传统国内政治因素的影响。而冷战时期美国和苏联对中东地区的争夺以及埃及纳赛尔政权的崛起使得叙利亚的外部环境有了新的变化。

  军事委员会通过军事政变在1963年参政,后通过政治清洗在1966年全面执政,实现了对政府、军队和复兴党的控制。它在政治经济上的实践对这一时期叙利亚诸多方面产生了重要影响。一是初步建立起党政军三权合一的高度权力集中的政治体制。二是改造复兴党,建立起以复兴党为政治框架,以军事力量为政治保障的统治模式。三是进行土地改革和工商业国有化,实现了国家权力对经济的掌控。四是在外交上奉行偏左路线,导致与周边国家关系紧张,恶化了叙利亚的国际生存环境。

  六五战争后叙利亚所面临的困境使得军事委员会内部在政策方向上发生分歧,而各成员日益增长的权力也加剧了内部的分裂。最终以阿萨德为代表的温和派取代了以贾迪德为首的激进派。阿萨德上台后继承并改进了军事委员会时期的政治体制和统治模式,强化了个人权力。叙利亚进入到阿萨德威权统治时代。


  Abstract

  Syrian Arab Baath Party Military Committee established in 1959, dissoluted in 1970. It was originally a political self-organized groups founded by a number of Baath Party military officers in Egypt, then evolved into the highest authority of Syria in fact. The Military Committee was the product of the combination of military forces and the Baath Party , also affected by class conflicts, regional differences , ethnic tensions and other traditional domestic political factors. The Nasser regime's rise in Egypt and the competition between the Soviet Union and the United States in the Middle East have brought new changes to the external environment of Syria.

  The Military Committee realized the control of the government, military and Baath Party by military coups in 1963 and political cleansing in 1966. Its practice in politics and economy had important impact in many aspects of Syria during this period. Firstly it set up a highly centralized political system that achieved the power unity of party, military and government. Secondly, it established a rule model that made the Baath Party as the political framework and military force as the political protection through the transformation of Baath Party. Thirdly, the policy of land reform and nationalization of industry and commerce achieved the control of the economy. Fourth, its left diplomatic route leaded to the tensions with neighboring countries and the deterioration of Syria's international living environment.

  The plight of Syria caused by the Six-Day War made the military committee differ in the policy direction. The growing power of the members also contributed to the internal divisions. Eventually the moderate Asad faction replaced the radical Jadid faction. When Asad came to power , he inherited and improved the political system of the military committee, and enhanced personal power. Syria has entered into the Asad era.