Syrian Arab Baath Party Military Committee established in 1959, dissoluted in 1970. It was originally a political self-organized groups founded by a number of Baath Party military officers in Egypt, then evolved into the highest authority of Syria in fact. The Military Committee was the product of the combination of military forces and the Baath Party , also affected by class conflicts, regional differences , ethnic tensions and other traditional domestic political factors. The Nasser regime's rise in Egypt and the competition between the Soviet Union and the United States in the Middle East have brought new changes to the external environment of Syria.
The Military Committee realized the control of the government, military and Baath Party by military coups in 1963 and political cleansing in 1966. Its practice in politics and economy had important impact in many aspects of Syria during this period. Firstly it set up a highly centralized political system that achieved the power unity of party, military and government. Secondly, it established a rule model that made the Baath Party as the political framework and military force as the political protection through the transformation of Baath Party. Thirdly, the policy of land reform and nationalization of industry and commerce achieved the control of the economy. Fourth, its left diplomatic route leaded to the tensions with neighboring countries and the deterioration of Syria's international living environment.
The plight of Syria caused by the Six-Day War made the military committee differ in the policy direction. The growing power of the members also contributed to the internal divisions. Eventually the moderate Asad faction replaced the radical Jadid faction. When Asad came to power , he inherited and improved the political system of the military committee, and enhanced personal power. Syria has entered into the Asad era.