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当前位置: 首页 > 研究生教育 > 硕士论文摘要 > 刘大胜: 《日美安保条约》修改过程中的美国对日政策研究
 

刘大胜: 《日美安保条约》修改过程中的美国对日政策研究

  摘   要


  《日美安保条约》的签订及发展和演变构成战后日美关系的重要组成部分。其中,该条约在岸信介内阁时期的修改意义重大,影响深远。对这一历史事件的深度解析,将有助于加深我们对日美关系的认识,具有学术意义和现实意义。

  本文以1957年到1960年作为考察时段,主要利用最近出版的英文资料《美国对日政策文书集成》,同时参阅中国学者以及美国、日本学者的相关研究成果,探讨条约修改的过程、原因及其历史影响。

  本文认为,美国之所以同意日本修改《日美安保条约》的要求,主要有主动和被动两方面的原因。从主动的方面来说,在冷战的国际背景下,美国急欲把日本打造成为资本主义阵营的反共尖兵,以达到其全球战略的目的,为此它要做出某种友好的姿态,以达到拉拢日本的目的;从被动的方面来说,日本国内民族主义的高涨严重威胁日本保守政权以及美日关系,其根源之一正是过时的《美日安保条约》,这也迫使美国政府作出一定程度的让步。

  虽然修改后的《日美安保条约》依然是一个不平等条约,但它朝着日美对等关系走出了重要的一步,在一定程度上解决了日美之间的一个突出矛盾。由此,日美关系得以强化,日本成为美国推行其战略目标的重要棋子。从这个角度来看,美国的对日政策调整是比较成功的。在该条约的修改过程中,美国对日政策表现出以下特点。

  第一,以美国利益为中心。其赋予日本以更加平等的地位,根本还是出于美国利益的需要;第二,比较灵活。其在大多数情况下能够比较准确地把握形势的发展,并根据客观情况的变化适时地进行政策的调整;第三,重视日本国内舆论。虽然并非无可挑剔,但大体上能够顾及日本民众的反应,并想方设法使日本心甘情愿地走上美国的战略轨道;第四,过分强调意识形态。其浓重的意识形态色彩在一定程度上也被日本所利用,成为日本达成其战略目的的借口。

  总之,在《日美安保条约》的修改过程中,美国的外交、美国的对日政策都值得深思。


  Abstract

  The sign, development and evolution of "Japan-U.S. Security Treaty", constituted an important part of postwar Japan-U.S. relationship. And, the revision of this treaty, in the Nobusuke Kishi cabinet, had affected profoundly and played a great rule in history. The deep analysis of this historical event, would be helpful in the process of deepening our understanding of Japan-U.S. relationship, and owned considerable academic and practical significance.

  This article selected 1951-1960 as the inspection time, mainly used recently published English material "Documents on United States Policy toward Japan", simultaneously referred to the latest related research works of scholars of China, America as well as Japan, and explored the process, reason and historical influence of the treaty revision.

  This thesis argued reasons of that the U.S. agreed the request of Japan’s revision to "Japan-U.S. Security Treaty", were mainly firmed by initiative and passive aspects. As to the initiative aspect, was the fact that, under international cold war background, the U.S. was eager to make Japan an anti-communism soldier in capitalism camp, to achieve its global strategy. For this reason, it should took some kind attitude to win over Japan. As to the passive aspect, which forced The U.S. government to make the some extent of concession, was that the Japanese domestic nationalism seriously threatened Japan’s conservative political power as well as the Japan-U.S. relationship, and one of its roots was the inappropriate "Japan-U.S. Security Treaty".

  Although revised "Japan-U.S. Security Treaty", was still an unequal treaty, but it meant an important step toward equal Japan-U.S. relationship, and resolved a prominent contradiction between Japan and the U.S., at a certain extent. So, the Japan-U.S. relationship could be strengthened and Japan became an important board in American strategic target. From this angle, the U.S. was successful to revise its diplomatic policy toward Japan. In this treaty's revision process, the U.S. displayed characteristic as following.

  Firstly, it took the U.S. interest as the center. It granted Japan a more equal status, radically, stemmed from the U.S. interest need; Secondly, it was quite flexible. It could grasp the development of situation quite accurately in the majority, and at the right moment carried out the policy with adjustment according to actual changes of situations; Thirdly, it considered Japanese domestic public opinion. Although by no means impeccable, it could take the Japanese populace's response into consideration on the whole, and did anything possible to make Japan to step onto the U.S.'s strategic track willingly; Fourthly, it overemphasized the ideology. Its strong ideology color was also used, to a certain extent, by Japan, became Japan’s excuse to achieve its strategic goal.

  In brief, it worthed a deep consideration of American diplomacy toward Japan, in the process of "Japan-U.S. Security Treaty" revisions.