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李洪珍:美中关系全国委员会与中国(1999-2010)

  摘 要

  1961到1972年是中美关系从对峙走向缓和的时期。为了改变中美两国隔绝对峙的状态,增加两国人民的相互了解,塞西尔•托马斯和罗伯特•斯卡拉宾诺等人在1964和1965年召开了两次关于中国问题的讨论会,并在此基础上于1966年6月建立美中关系全国委员会。委员会成立后,通过召开研讨会等形式向美国人民介绍中国的情况,为中美关系的缓和奠定了基础。

  1972到1979年是中美关系从缓和到建交的时期。在这一时期,美中关系全国委员会积极促进中美两国在体育、艺术两方面的交流,并积极推动中美两国民间和半官方的公共事务团体互访,推动了中美关系的正常化进程。在共同的抗苏战略的推动下,1979到1989年的中美关系保持了积极的发展势头。美中关系全国委员会在继续推动中美两国艺术和各种民间和半官方团体之间的交流的同时,积极推动中美两国官方的交流,并建立了可持续性的中美教育交流项目和“二轨”对话项目,这有利于中美两国官方人士和民众进一步相互了解。1989到1999年的中美关系呈现出消极的发展状态,但该委员会为推动中美关系的正常发展,除了进一步促进中美两国之间的教育交流之外,还推动中美两国在经济、法律、军事和环境领域的交流,这有利于中美关系在新的共同利益基础上的发展。

  1999到2010年,美中关系全国委员会结合中美关系发展的新形势,制定了4个新的活动目标。第一是告知政策领导人和意见塑造者。在此目标下委员会开展了美国市政领导代表团到中国参观访问项目、“总统候选人活动”、“美中国会交流小组”访问中国计划以及为美国职业生涯中期的军事官员详细介绍中国计划。第二是在前沿问题上促进中美之间的对话和合作。为达到此目标,委员会首先是针对人权问题开展了一系列活动,包括接待首次访美的中国人权代表团以及和中国人权发展基金会合作组织召开首届中美人权与法治对话会议。其次是在经济问题上加强中美之间的交流与合作。第三是致力于开发下一代政策领导人的能力。在这一目标下,委员会开展了“美中杰出青年论坛”和“美国外交政策论坛”这两个项目。第四是通过教育交流和公众教育促进观念的交流。为了实现此目标,委员会继续支持在1984年就已经开展的“中美学者交流计划”项目,直到2002年此计划终止。委员会还于2005年开展“鲍大可-奥克森伯格中美关系”讲座。由于美中关系全国委员会自2000年以来设置了具体的活动目标,因此该委员会在和中国开展交流活动的过程中更具有战略意图。

  美中关系全国委员会设置了两个机构:董事会和会长,其运作方式是成员主导的模式。成员包括公司和个体两类。该委员会是美国从事民间外交活动的非营利性组织,但是随着时代的发展,它和美国官方的关系越来越紧密,同时注重维护美国的国家利益。该委员会组织的活动反映了美国人向外传播其固有价值观的本性。美中关系全国委员会进一步开展活动的前提是中美关系的进展,反过来委员会开展的活动又促进了中美两国在共同利益基础上的合作。

  Abstract

  The year from 1961 to 1972 witnessed the Sino-American relations from confrontation to détente. In order to change the state of isolation and confrontation between China and America and increase the mutual understandings between the peoples of the two countries, Cecil Thomas , Robert Scalapino and the other people held two seminars on the problems of China. And on that basis, they established the NCUSCR in June 1966. After the establishment of the committee, it introduced the situation of China to American people by seminars and the forms, which laid the foundation for the détente of Sino-American relations.

  The year from 1961 to 1972 witnessed the Sino-US relations from détente to the establishment of official diplomatic relations. During this period, the National Committee on United States-China Relations (NCUSCR), by actively promoting Sino–US exchanges in sports, arts and non-governmental and semi–official exchanges of visits, speeded the process of normalization of Sino-American relations. By the promotion of resisting Soviet Union, Sino-US relations during the years between 1979 and 1989 were kept well. The committee continued to promote exchanges of arts and a variety of civil and semi–official bodies between China and America. At the same time, actively promoted official exchanges between two nations, and established sustainable Sino–US educational exchanges and ‘Track Ⅱ”dialogue projects, which were conducive to further mutual understanding between officials and the public in both nations. The situation of Sino–American relations was very negative during the period between 1989 and 1999, but in order to facilitate the relationship develop normally, the NCUSCR, on one hand, furthered the Sino–US educational exchange, and on the other hand, facilitated China and America to cooperation in the fields of economics, law, military and environment, which helped the development of Sino–US relations on the basis of new mutual interests.

  During the period from 1999 to 2010, the NCUSCR made four new activity aims according to the new situation of Sino–US relations. The first was to inform the policy leaders and opinion shapers. According to the aim, the committee held U.S. “Municipal Leaders Delegations” to China project, “Presidential Candidates Initiative”, “U.S.–China Congressional Communicative Group” to China plan and “China Briefings for Mid–Career Military Officers” plan. The second was to foster dialogue and cooperation on cutting edge issues. In order to realize the target, the committee firstly conducted a serious of activities on human rights problems, including the reception of China human rights delegation’s first visit to the U.S., holding the inaugural Sino–American dialogue on the rule of law and human rights meeting, and then facilitated the cooperation between U.S. and China in the economics field. The third was to develop the capacity of next generation of policy leaders. According to this target, the committee held two projects, including “U.S.–China Young Leaders Forum” and “U.S. Foreign Policy Colloquium”. The fourth was facilitating the exchange of ideas through educational exchanges and public education. In order to achieve this goal, the committee continued to support the “Scholar Orientation Program” started in 1984 until its end in 2002. The committee also carried out “the Barnett-Oksenberg Lecture on Sino-American Relations” began in 2005. Because the NCUSCR has set specific activity goals since 2000, it has had more strategic intents than ever when carrying out its exchange activities with China.

  The NCUSCR has two agencies: the board of directors and presidency. Its mode of operation is staff oriented. There are two kinds of members in the NCUSCR, one is corporate members, the other is individual members. The NCUSCR is a non-profit organization, devoting to civil diplomatic activities. But with the development of times, its relationship with the American governments is closer and closer, and meantime it focuses on the national interest of the United States. Activities organized by the NCUSCR reflected the nature of the Americans transmitting its inherent values. The premise of the committee’s further activities was the development of Sino–American relations, in turn, the activities carried out by the committee also promoted the cooperation between China and the United States on the basis of mutual interests.