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当前位置: 首页 > 研究生教育 > 硕士论文摘要 > 王荇芃:三哩岛核事故对美国利用核能进程的影响
 

王荇芃:三哩岛核事故对美国利用核能进程的影响

  摘 要

  1979年发生于美国三哩岛核电站的事故,是自开启和平利用核能、核电商业化进程以来,美国境内所发生的最为严重的核泄漏事故。三哩岛事故不仅造成巨大的经济损失,使得周边居民恐慌撤离,引发业界、学界以及全社会对于核电站安全性的忧虑,更促使自下而上的反核运动达到高峰,并推动了政府关于核电发展的政策立场的转变,从而对核能利用事业的发展产生深远的影响。三哩岛事故因此成为美国核电史上的一道分水岭。

  本文主体分为三个部分。第一部分首先对事故本身进行简要回顾,包括核电站概况,事故发生的原因和过程,造成的直接影响,以及事故后该电站的整改措施、后续运行和现状。然后介绍事故发生的时代背景,即美国国内核电发展状况,包括事故前已取得的成就、存在的问题和隐患,以及国内反对与支持核电这两方民间力量的初步发展。

  第二部分,着重论述事故自下而上显现其影响力的过程,主要从反核组织一方、支持核电的一方,以及学界专家这三个彼此关联的方面来体现各自发挥的作用。

  第三部分,关注美国各级政府管理部门所持有的立场、采取的政策,如何在前述各种力量的综合博弈基础上,产生了重大转变,进而在更长的时段里影响了美国核电发展的道路。本部分末尾对核电的前景做出尝试性的评价。

  Abstract

  The Three Mile Island Accident in 1979 was the most severe nuclear meltdown accident in the history of peacefully utilizing and commercializing nuclear power in the United States. The accident not only had created enormous economic losses, led residents in the surround areas to evacuate in panic, and caused concerns over the safety of nuclear power plant in the industry, academia and general public, but it also had pushed the anti-nuclear movements to their peak and promoted changes in the government policies regarding nuclear power development, which had deeply impacted the utilization of nuclear power. The accident therefore became a turning point in the American nuclear power history.

  The article contains three major parts. Part one first gives a brief review of the accident itself including the general situation of the plant, the cause and development of the accident, its direct impact, and the post-accident measures of rectification, restoration and the current status of the plant. Then it moves on to the historical background introducing the domestic development of nuclear power in the United States, which includes the accomplishments of the industry prior to the accident, existing and potential problems, and the initial development of public support and opposition.

  Part two focuses on the progress of how the accident had revealed its power in affecting the society from the bottom to top. It reflects the action and interaction of the three interrelated groups namely the anti-nuclear group, the group that supported nuclear power and the academia.

  Part three attends to the perspectives of all levels of the American governments, their policies, and the transformation as a result of the forces aforementioned, which affected the American nuclear power development in the long term. In the end, it tries to evaluate the prospects of the nuclear power.

  Finally the conclusion summarizes the accident and the general impact and meaning of its aftermath.