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当前位置: 首页 > 研究生教育 > 硕士论文摘要 > 孟珍真:试论美国塔斯克基学校早期的教育模式
 

孟珍真:试论美国塔斯克基学校早期的教育模式

摘要

 塔斯克基师范与工业学院,由美国著名黑人教育家、社会活动家布克•T.华盛顿于1881年创立。在教学实践中,华盛顿校长逐渐将学校办成了职业教育学校。之所以将学校办成职业教育学校,一方面是基于当时恶劣的种族环境,一方面是源于当时黑人民众普遍贫困的社会状况。此外,华盛顿校长本人因接受职业教育而改变命运的生活经历,也促使他选择为黑人学生办职业教育。

  塔斯克基学校的教育模式有特殊的教学内容和教学方法。具体而言,它包含了职业教育、文化教育、文明品德教育三个方面。学校采取的教育模式曾引起争议,也遇到了挑战,并最终促使华盛顿之后的两任校长罗伯特•R.默顿和弗雷德里克•D.帕特森对学校教育模式进行一定改革。

  塔斯克基学校及其所采取的职业教育模式产生了重要社会影响。首先,它使职业教育在20世纪初的美国南部蔚为成风,并通过学校的师范毕业生帮助完善了美国南部的黑人教育体系。其次,学校开展以黑人民众为主要教育对象的社会项目,帮助部分黑人民众改善了经济状况。最后,学校还对改善白人和黑人的种族关系起了一定作用。

  关键词:塔斯克基学校;布克•华盛顿;黑人教育;职业教育模式

ABSTRACT

 Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute was founded by the famous African-American educator,social activist Booker T. Washington in 1881. During the teaching practice, Principal Washington changed the school into an industrial school. It is mainly because of the adverse racial circumstance and the poverty among African-American people. In addition, Principal Washington’s life was changed by the industrial education. These are all the reasons that Washington changed the school into an industrial school.

  The industrial education mode in Tuskegee has special educational contents and methods. Specifically, it includes industrial courses, academic courses, civilization and moral courses. This educational mode once caused controversies and met many challenges. They are the reasons that the principals after Washington made changes.

  Tuskegee School with its special industrial education mode has great influences on American society. Firstly, it made industrial education a trend in the southern United States in the early 20th century. And it helped to perfect African-American’s education system in the south by training many African-American teachers. Secondly, it helped some African-American people to improve their economic conditions by training them. Lastly, it played a role in improving the relationship between white and black race.

  KEY WORDS: Tuskegee School; Booker Washington; African-American Education; Industrial Education Mode