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当前位置: 首页 > 研究生教育 > 硕士论文摘要 > 王悦欢:卡特政府与巴列维王朝——1977年~1978年的美伊关系
 

王悦欢:卡特政府与巴列维王朝——1977年~1978年的美伊关系

摘要

 20世纪70年代,随着国际政治经济环境的变化以及伊朗国内政治动荡加剧,美国和伊朗之间维持了几十年之久的友好关系急转直下。1978年伊朗伊斯兰革命爆发后,美伊关系最终破裂。1977年~1978年是美国和伊朗关系从“友好”走向破裂的转折时期。本文主要探讨这一时期的美伊关系及其特点。

  1977年,在外交政策中倡导“人权”的民主党人卡特当选美国总统。此后,美国和伊朗的关系发生了微妙的变化。本文主要从四个方面论述1977年~1978年美伊之间的互动。第一,卡特政府在对外关系中的人权政策具有双重标准,对伊朗的人权政策存在矛盾。卡特的人权政策对伊朗造成的影响也是两方面的:一方面在客观上促进了伊朗社会的自由化运动;另一方面暂时保全了巴列维国王的专制统治。第二,在经济上,美国和伊朗互动频繁。美国需要伊朗的石油资源,伊朗的现代化需要美国经济援助。双方在经济互动过程中有合作也存在矛盾。第三,在军事问题上,卡特政府出于地缘政治和经济利益的考虑,没有对伊朗的大规模购置先进武器设限,对伊朗经济造成严重损害。第四,领导人个人因素对这一时期美伊关系的发展造成一定影响。

  总之,1977年~1978年的美伊关系呈现出复杂性。伊朗伊斯兰革命的爆发、巴列维王朝的覆灭以及美伊关系的破裂是众多复杂因素综合作用的结果,其中卡特政府的对伊政策以及美伊在人权、经济和军购等问题上的互动对这一进程发挥了重要作用。

  关键词:卡特政府; 巴列维王朝; 美伊关系

ABSTRACT

 During the 1970s, with the changes in the international political and economic environment as well as Iran’s domestic political turmoil getting worse, the friendly relationship between the United States and Iran, which had been maintained for almost three decades, changed suddenly. The outbreak of Iran’s Islamic Revolution in 1978 caused U.S.-Iran relations to break down. It seems that the phase between 1977 and 1978 was the transition period of U.S.-Iran relations from ally to enemy. This paper is mainly intended to do research on the facts and characteristics of U.S.-Iran relationship during this period.

  Jimmy Carter, a Democrat who regarded human rights as his important foreign policy agenda, took office as President of the United States in 1977. After that, delicate changes had taken place in U.S.-Iran relations. Mainly, there were four aspects in U.S.-Iran relations during 1977-1978. First of all, human rights policy of the Carter Administration’s foreign policy contained double standards, and Carter’s human rights policy towards Iran was contradictory. This had two-side effects on Iran: promoting Iran’s liberalization movement objectively while maintaining the Shah’s authoritarian rule temporarily. Secondly, the two countries had frequent interactions in the economy field. While the United States needed Iran’s oil, Iran’s modernization could not continue without the help of American backup. We can see both cooperation and contradiction in their bilateral relationship. Thirdly, by considering the geo-political and economic interests, the Carter Administration did not make strict constraints on Iran’s massive purchase of advanced weapons, which caused serious damages to Iran’s economy. Last but not the least, the factor of personality and character of key decision makers also played an important role in the bilateral relationship.

  In summary, the U.S.-Iran relationship illustrated a complexity during 1977-1978. The outbreak of the Islamic revolution, the fall of the Shah, and the break-down of the bilateral relationship was caused by a number of complicated factors. Among the reasons, the Carter Administration’s foreign policy towards Iran and the interactions between the two countries on issues such as: human rights, economy and arms sale contributed a lot to this process.

  KEY WORDS: Carter Administration Pahlavi’s dynasty U.S.-Iran relations