关键词：卡特政府； 巴列维王朝； 美伊关系
During the 1970s, with the changes in the international political and economic environment as well as Iran’s domestic political turmoil getting worse, the friendly relationship between the United States and Iran, which had been maintained for almost three decades, changed suddenly. The outbreak of Iran’s Islamic Revolution in 1978 caused U.S.-Iran relations to break down. It seems that the phase between 1977 and 1978 was the transition period of U.S.-Iran relations from ally to enemy. This paper is mainly intended to do research on the facts and characteristics of U.S.-Iran relationship during this period.
Jimmy Carter, a Democrat who regarded human rights as his important foreign policy agenda, took office as President of the United States in 1977. After that, delicate changes had taken place in U.S.-Iran relations. Mainly, there were four aspects in U.S.-Iran relations during 1977-1978. First of all, human rights policy of the Carter Administration’s foreign policy contained double standards, and Carter’s human rights policy towards Iran was contradictory. This had two-side effects on Iran: promoting Iran’s liberalization movement objectively while maintaining the Shah’s authoritarian rule temporarily. Secondly, the two countries had frequent interactions in the economy field. While the United States needed Iran’s oil, Iran’s modernization could not continue without the help of American backup. We can see both cooperation and contradiction in their bilateral relationship. Thirdly, by considering the geo-political and economic interests, the Carter Administration did not make strict constraints on Iran’s massive purchase of advanced weapons, which caused serious damages to Iran’s economy. Last but not the least, the factor of personality and character of key decision makers also played an important role in the bilateral relationship.
In summary, the U.S.-Iran relationship illustrated a complexity during 1977-1978. The outbreak of the Islamic revolution, the fall of the Shah, and the break-down of the bilateral relationship was caused by a number of complicated factors. Among the reasons, the Carter Administration’s foreign policy towards Iran and the interactions between the two countries on issues such as: human rights, economy and arms sale contributed a lot to this process.
KEY WORDS: Carter Administration Pahlavi’s dynasty U.S.-Iran relations